wind & willow seasoning

Its speed is 20,000,000 miles per hour (32,000,000 km/h), which is 3% of the speed of light. Harnessing the unequaled wind resources off the coast of Maine is critical to meet the state’s climate goals of moving Maine to using 80 percent renewable energy by 2030, and 100 percent by 2050, in order to curb harmful greenhouse gas emissions. This temperature change causes the daytime sea breeze to dissipate. [62] In 2011 wind energy was also used to power the longest journey in a wind-powered car which travelled a distance of 5,000 km (3,100 miles) from Perth to Melbourne in Australia. Using the concept of stream tube, the maximal achievable extraction of wind power by a wind turbine is 16/27 ≈ 59% of the total theoretical wind power[27] (see: Betz' law). (moving air) vent nm nom masculin: s'utilise avec les articles "le", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "un". Further insufficiencies, such as rotor blade friction and drag, gearbox losses, generator and converter losses, reduce the power delivered by a wind turbine. … [79] Venti are the Roman gods of the winds. before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a, 15th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 2, before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1a, 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 4, 1586, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1, Middle English, from Old English; akin to Old High German wint wind, Latin ventus, Greek aēnai to blow, Sanskrit vāti it blows, Middle English, from Old English windan to twist, move with speed or force, brandish; akin to Old High German wintan to wind, Umbrian ohavendu let him turn aside. Most ocean basins use the average wind speed to determine the tropical cyclone's category. The cooler air above the sea, now with higher sea level pressure, flows inland into the lower pressure, creating a cooler breeze near the coast. The direction from which a movement of air comes: The wind is north-northwest. Strong winds of intermediate duration (around one minute) are termed squalls. The pilot must adjust the airspeed to deal with the effect of the gradient. Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology. Isotachs are particularly useful in diagnosing the location of the jet stream on upper-level constant pressure charts, and are usually located at or above the 300 hPa level.[26]. This triggers the main shaft of the wind turbine, connected to a gearbox within the nacelle, to spin. On coasts and isolated mountains, the tree line is often much lower than in corresponding altitudes inland and in larger, more complex mountain systems, because strong winds reduce tree growth. What does wind expression mean? [10] Another type of anemometer uses pitot tubes that take advantage of the pressure differential between an inner tube and an outer tube that is exposed to the wind to determine the dynamic pressure, which is then used to compute the wind speed.[11]. The Calima carries dust on southeast winds into the Canary islands. [106], There are local names for winds associated with sand and dust storms. What does wind expression mean? Internet 50Mbps, τηλεόραση WIND VISION με περισσότερα από 60 συνδρομητικά κανάλια & δώρο Wi-Fi Extender για κάλυψη σε κάθε γωνιά του σπιτιού! [64] Wind shear can be broken down into vertical and horizontal components, with horizontal wind shear seen across weather fronts and near the coast,[65] and vertical shear typically near the surface,[66] though also at higher levels in the atmosphere near upper level jets and frontal zones aloft. The Saffir–Simpson scale and Enhanced Fujita scale were designed to help estimate wind speed from the damage caused by high winds related to tropical cyclones and tornadoes, and vice versa.[143][22]. [105], During mid-summer (July in the northern hemisphere), the westward-moving trade winds south of the northward-moving subtropical ridge expand northwestward from the Caribbean into southeastern North America. Intensity Observation and Forecast Errors", "National Weather Service Instruction 10-1605", National Centers for Environmental Prediction, "African Dust Called A Major Factor Affecting Southeast U.S. Air Quality", "Chapter-II Monsoon-2004: Onset, Advancement and Circulation Features", "Climatology of the Interior Columbia River Basin", National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Oceanographic Partnership Program, "The Physical Environment: Global scale circulation", "The Role of Mountains in the South Asian Monsoon Circulation", 10.1175/1520-0469(1975)032<1515:TROMIT>2.0.CO;2, "The influence of mesoscale orography on a coastal jet and rainband", 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<1465:TIOMOO>2.0.CO;2, "T-REX: Catching the Sierra's waves and rotors", "CHAPTER 8: Introduction to the Hydrosphere (e). Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for wind, Nglish: Translation of wind for Spanish Speakers, Britannica English: Translation of wind for Arabic Speakers, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about wind. When the temperature onshore cools below the temperature offshore, the pressure over the water will be lower than that of the land, establishing a land breeze, as long as an onshore wind is not strong enough to oppose it. A squall is an increase of the wind speed above a certain threshold, which lasts for a minute or more. [14] Knowing the wind sampling average is important, as the value of a one-minute sustained wind is typically 14% greater than a ten-minute sustained wind. [30] The trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical cyclones that form over the world's oceans. [19] A storm has winds of 56 knots (104 km/h) to 63 knots (117 km/h). [52], In mountainous areas, local distortion of the airflow becomes severe. Large families of plants are pollinated in this manner, which is favored when individuals of the dominant plant species are spaced closely together. Wind power is considered a renewable energy source. The sea is warmed by the sun more slowly because of water's greater specific heat compared to land. The Egmond aan Zee wind farm off the Dutch coast is a 50-50 joint venture between European utility company Nuon and Shell. Wind pressures are positive on the windward side of a structure and negative on the leeward side. Wind, air, zephyr, breeze, blast, gust refer to a quantity of air set in motion naturally. [161] Saturn's winds are among the Solar System's fastest. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 06:50. Which word describes a musical performance marked by the absence of instrumental accompaniment. [137] Increases in wind above 15 kilometers per hour (9.3 mph) signals glaucous gulls to increase their foraging and aerial attacks on thick-billed murres.[138]. Cloud Formation Processes", "Foehn Winds That Produced Large Temperature Differences near the Southern Appalachian Mountains", "On High Winds and Foehn Warming Associated with Mountain-Wave Events in the Western Foothills of the Southern Appalachian Mountains", "Unexpected Warming Induced by Foehn Winds in the Lee of the Smoky Mountains", 10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0907:UWIBFW>2.0.CO;2, "120 Gigawatt of wind turbines globally contribute to secure electricity generation", "From AC to DC: Going green with supergrids", http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/REN12-GSR2015_Onlinebook_low1.pdf, "FAA Advisory Circular Pilot Wind Shear Guide via the Internet Wayback Machine", National Aeronautic and Space Administration, Ground Plane Wind Shear Interaction on Acoustic Transmission, "Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: 7, "Protestant Wind"—"Popish Wind": The Revolusion of 1688 in England", 10.1175/1520-0477(1985)066<0634:GHETWS>2.0.CO;2, "Boat made of plastic bottles to make ocean voyage", "Relative Velocities: Aircraft Reference", "Emergency Tillage to Control Wind Erosion", "Robotic Observations of Dust Storm Enhancement of Carbon Biomass in the North Pacific", "Microbes And The Dust They Ride In On Pose Potential Health Risks", "Study Says African Dust Affects Climate in U.S., Caribbean", "Table of Contents: Wind Climatology of the Winter Shamal", "Wind-Conditioned 20th Century Decline of Birch Treeline Vegetation in the Swedish Scandes", ARS Studies Effect of Wind Sandblasting on Cotton Plants / January 26, 2010 / News from the USDA Agricultural Research Service, "ARS Studies Effect of Wind Sandblasting on Cotton Plants", "Birds migrate together at night in dispersed flocks, new study indicates", "BIO 554/754 Ornithology Lecture Notes 2 – Bird Flight I", "P5A.6 Fine-Scale Vertical Structure of a Cold Front As Revealed By Airborne 95 GHZ Radar", "Contamination of WSR-88D VAD Winds Due to Bird Migration: A Case Study", 10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[2403:WAPNSA]2.0.CO;2, "How to Minimize Wind Damage in the South Florida Garden", "Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Information", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Info note No.58 — World Record Wind Gust: 408 km/h", "Chandra Finds Fastest Winds from Stellar Black Hole", "Atmospheric Escape Hot Jupiters & Interactions Between Planetary and Stellar Winds", "Geomagnetic Storms Can Threaten Electric Power Grid", National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "Cloud-tracked winds from Pioneer Venus OCPP images", 10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<2053:CTWFVO>2.0.CO;2, "Mars Rovers Spot Water-Clue Mineral, Frost, Clouds", NASA – NASA Mars Rover Churns Up Questions With Sulfur-Rich Soil, "Uranus in 2003: Zonal winds, banded structure, and discrete features", Convective available potential energy (CAPE), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wind&oldid=991281322, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Find all the weather maps, satellite and radar maps, weather conditions and explanations you're looking for. Wind has a very important role in aiding plants and other immobile organisms in dispersal of seeds, spores, pollen, etc. Jagged terrain combines to produce unpredictable flow patterns and turbulence, such as rotors, which can be topped by lenticular clouds. For full treatment, see climate: Wind. During strong thunderstorms, straight line wind speeds can exceed 100 mph. Note: Delivered to your inbox! 2-year term required 1. [111] Over 50% of the African dust that reaches the United States affects Florida. High winds can blow objects around and pose a significant threat to your safety. While taking off with a tailwind may be necessary under certain circumstances, a headwind is generally desirable. Together with the trade winds, the westerlies enabled a round-trip trade route for sailing ships crossing the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as the westerlies lead to the development of strong ocean currents on the western sides of oceans in both hemispheres through the process of western intensification. Historically, the Beaufort wind force scale (created by Beaufort) provides an empirical description of wind speed based on observed sea conditions. The kinetic energy of a packet of air of mass m with velocity v is given by ½ m v2. Below is the scale. Using a mechanical sandblaster in a laboratory setting, scientists affiliated with the Agricultural Research Service studied the effects of windblown sand abrasion on cotton seedlings. High altitude wind power is the focus of over 30 companies worldwide using tethered technology rather than ground-hugging compressive-towers. [59] At the end of 2008, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 120.8 gigawatts. [78][79] The Greek wind gods include Boreas, Notus, Eurus, and Zephyrus. Their cerci are very sensitive to the wind, and help them survive half of their attacks. In gliding, wind gradients just above the surface affect the takeoff and landing phases of flight of a glider. Wildfire intensity increases during daytime hours. [29] The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere. The movement of air causes movements of parts of natural objects, such as leaves or grass. Widespread significant wind damage can occur with higher wind speeds. There is a large variability in the dust transport to the Caribbean and Florida from year to year. Total destruction to man-made structures occurs when winds reach 175 knots (324 km/h). Strong winds will pick up loose sand and topsoil and hurl it through the air at speeds ranging from 25 miles per hour (40 km/h) to 40 miles per hour (64 km/h). [77], As a natural force, the wind was often personified as one or more wind gods or as an expression of the supernatural in many cultures. [93], For aerodynamic aircraft which operate relative to the air, winds affect groundspeed,[94] and in the case of lighter-than-air vehicles, wind may play a significant or solitary role in their movement and ground track. Higher wind speeds generate more power because stronger winds allow the blades to rotate faster. Even a soft wind will cause a low level of environmental noise. Within the Beaufort scale, gale-force winds lie between 28 knots (52 km/h) and 55 knots (102 km/h) with preceding adjectives such as moderate, fresh, strong, and whole used to differentiate the wind's strength within the gale category. The relationship between wind speed and power for a typical wind turbine is shown in Figure 2. [31] Trade winds also steer African dust westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean, as well as portions of southeast North America. Vayu is the Hindu God of Wind. As described earlier, prevailing and local winds are not spread evenly across the earth, which means that wind speeds also differ by region. The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics towards the Earth's equator. [32], A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind that lasts for several months within tropical regions. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Double Play Plus & WIND VISION μόνο €32/μήνα. [79] There are also four dvärgar (Norse dwarves), named Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri, and probably the four stags of Yggdrasil, personify the four winds, and parallel the four Greek wind gods. [119], Wind dispersal of seeds, or anemochory, is one of the more primitive means of dispersal. 'Cease' vs. 'Seize': Explaining the Difference. Many of the Earth's deserts lie near the average latitude of the subtropical ridge, where descent reduces the relative humidity of the air mass. The wind is also an important means of transportation for seeds and small birds; with time things can travel thousands of miles in the wind. Cassini–Huygens data indicated peak easterly winds of 375 meters per second (840 mph). The energy that drives wind originates with the sun, which heats the Earth unevenly, creating warm spots and cool spots. When a high measurement frequency is needed (such as in research applications), wind can be measured by the propagation speed of ultrasound signals or by the effect of ventilation on the resistance of a heated wire. Wind is the movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. Below is a summary of the classifications used by Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers worldwide: The Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF Scale) rates the strength of tornadoes in the United States by using damage to estimate wind speed. Wind power generation plays an increasingly important role in the way we power our world – in a clean, sustainable manner. Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. [18] There are general terms that differentiate winds of different average speeds such as a breeze, a gale, a storm, or a hurricane. [157] When the poles of Mars are exposed to sunlight after their winter, the frozen CO2 sublimates, creating significant winds that sweep off the poles as fast as 400 kilometers per hour (250 mph), which subsequently transports large amounts of dust and water vapor over its landscape. Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. It takes into account wind velocity and mass. [63], Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the Earth's atmosphere. These particles are able to escape the sun's gravity, in part because of the high temperature of the corona,[152] but also because of high kinetic energy that particles gain through a process that is not well understood. Air, usually poetical, applies to a very gentle motion of the air. [91] A severe storm could lead to shipwreck, and the loss of all hands. When high winds knock down or uproot trees, the process is known as windthrow. Globally, the two major driving factors of large-scale wind patterns (the atmospheric circulation) are the differential heating between the equator and the poles (difference in absorption of solar energy leading to buoyancy forces) and the rotation of the planet. [167] The fastest wind on any known planet is on HD 80606 b located 190 light years away, where it blows at more than 11,000 mph or 5 km/s. Windfinder specializes in wind, waves, tides and weather reports & forecasts for wind related sports like kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing, sailing, fishing or paragliding. The solar wind is quite different from a terrestrial wind, in that its origin is the sun, and it is composed of charged particles that have escaped the sun's atmosphere. [114] Similar dust plumes originate in the Gobi Desert, which combined with pollutants, spread large distances downwind, or eastward, into North America. In the coldest climates such as Antarctica, emperor penguins use huddling behavior to survive the wind and cold, continuously alternating the members on the outside of the assembled group, which reduces heat loss by 50%. Westerly winds in the mid-latitudes of the planet drive the movement of ocean currents from west to east across the world's oceans. The term is first known to have been used as the name of a pair or series of typhoons that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan that attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281. In New Zealand, they are known as the Nor'west arch, and are accompanied by the cloud formation they are named after that has inspired artwork over the years. Examples of these parts are balconies, ventilation openings, roof openings or cables. [47], Over elevated surfaces, heating of the ground exceeds the heating of the surrounding air at the same altitude above sea level, creating an associated thermal low over the terrain and enhancing any thermal lows that would have otherwise existed,[48][49] and changing the wind circulation of the region. When wind gusts are at a similar frequency to the swaying of the bridge, the bridge can be destroyed more easily, such as what occurred with the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940. Ocean roughness can be used to estimate wind velocity close to the sea surface over oceans. In Argentina, the local name for down sloped winds is zonda. [53] Winds that flow over mountains down into lower elevations are known as downslope winds. The United States reports winds over a 1‑minute average for tropical cyclones,[12] and a 2‑minute average within weather observations. Similar to the solar wind, the planetary wind is composed of light gases that escape planetary atmospheres. [80] Fūjin is the Japanese wind god and is one of the eldest Shinto gods. [60] Although wind produced only about 1.5% of worldwide electricity use in 2009,[60] it is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land breeze cycle can define local winds; in areas that have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes can dominate local winds. This is called deflation. [96], Historically, the ancient Sinhalese of Anuradhapura and in other cities around Sri Lanka used the monsoon winds to power furnaces as early as 300 BCE. [135] Cockroaches use slight winds that precede the attacks of potential predators, such as toads, to survive their encounters. This may be caused by the wind blowing over cavities, or by vortices created in the air downstream of an object. Faster rotation translates to more mechanical power and more electrical power from the generator. Another word for wind. [107] Loess is a homogeneous, typically nonstratified, porous, friable, slightly coherent, often calcareous, fine-grained, silty, pale yellow or buff, windblown (Aeolian) sediment. [117] Spring storm systems moving across the eastern Mediterranean Sea cause dust to carry across Egypt and the Arabian peninsula, which are locally known as Khamsin. [156], Strong 300 kilometers per hour (190 mph) winds at Venus's cloud tops circle the planet every four to five earth days. [112] Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened because of periods of drought in Africa. Wind, in climatology, the movement of air relative to the surface of the Earth. For instance, species in the Asteraceae on islands tended to have reduced dispersal capabilities (i.e., larger seed mass and smaller pappus) relative to the same species on the mainland. Sustained wind speeds are reported globally at a 10 meters (33 ft) height and are averaged over a 10‑minute time frame. [151], Rather than air, the solar wind is a stream of charged particles—a plasma—ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun at a rate of 400 kilometers per second (890,000 mph). Outside the tropics and aloft from frictional effects of the surface, the large-scale winds tend to approach geostrophic balance. [144] The most powerful gusts of wind on Earth were created by nuclear detonations. These prevailing winds blow from the west to the east,[37][38] and steer extratropical cyclones in this general manner. Near the Earth's surface, friction causes the wind to be slower than it would be otherwise. [88] Ocean journeys by sailing ship can take many months,[89] and a common hazard is becoming becalmed because of lack of wind,[90] or being blown off course by severe storms or winds that do not allow progress in the desired direction. [51], If there is a pass in the mountain range, winds will rush through the pass with considerable speed because of the Bernoulli principle that describes an inverse relationship between speed and pressure. Accessed 2 Dec. 2020. [132] As such, fine line patterns within weather radar imagery, associated with converging winds, are dominated by insect returns. "[87], There are many different forms of sailing ships, but they all have certain basic things in common. Total wind power could be captured only if the wind velocity is reduced to zero. [40] These western ocean currents transport warm, sub-tropical water polewards toward the polar regions. Winds can disperse seeds from various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of those plant species, as well as flying insect populations. [17] Remote sensing techniques for wind include SODAR, Doppler lidars and radars, which can measure the Doppler shift of electromagnetic radiation scattered or reflected off suspended aerosols or molecules, and radiometers and radars can be used to measure the surface roughness of the ocean from space or airplanes. Unlike the Westerlies, these prevailing winds blow from the east to the west, and are often weak and irregular. [109] Loess tends to develop into highly rich soils. These objects will produce sound if they touch each other. Wind turbines allow us to harness the power of the wind and turn it into energy. … First, wind causes small particles to be lifted and therefore moved to another region. Geostationary satellite imagery can be used to estimate the winds throughout the atmosphere based upon how far clouds move from one image to the next. [54] In the Great Plains of the United States, these winds are known as a chinook. The station model plotted on surface weather maps uses a wind barb to show both wind direction and speed. Turbines are designed to operate within a specific range of wind speeds. [6], Wind direction is usually expressed in terms of the direction from which it originates. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Neptune and Saturn. [79] Aeolus, in varying interpretations the ruler or keeper of the four winds, has also been described as Astraeus, the god of dusk who fathered the four winds with Eos, goddess of dawn. Wind energy is the kinetic energy of the air in motion. In meteorology, winds are often referred to according to their strength, and the direction from which the wind is blowing. [7] Weather vanes pivot to indicate the direction of the wind. Peels surface off some roofs; some damage to gutters or siding; branches broken off trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over. Over long periods of time, the planetary wind can radically change the composition of planetary atmospheres. Wind also affects the spread of wildfires. [116] The Sirocco brings dust from north Africa into southern Europe because of the movement of extratropical cyclones through the Mediterranean. In several countries it has achieved relatively high levels of penetration, accounting for approximately 19% of electricity production in Denmark, 10% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. The polar easterlies, also known as Polar Hadley cells, are dry, cold prevailing winds that blow from the high-pressure areas of the polar highs at the north and south poles towards the low-pressure areas within the Westerlies at high latitudes. Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. [127] After a period of four weeks, the growth of the seedling once again became uniform throughout the plant, as it was before the windblown sand abrasion occurred. The ancient Greeks also observed the seasonal change of the winds, as evidenced by the Tower of the Winds in Athens. [51] Cool winds accelerating through mountain gaps have been given regional names. When these winds blow over open waters, they increase mixing of the upper layers of the ocean that elevates cool, nutrient rich waters to the surface, which leads to increased marine life. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth. From Middle English winde, wind, from Old English wind (“wind”), from Proto-Germanic *windaz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéh₁n̥tos (“wind”), from earlier *h₂wéh₁n̥ts (“wind”), derived from the present participle of *h₂weh₁- (“to blow”). It consists mostly of electrons and protons with energies of about 1 keV. [108] It generally occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Two simple examples of this are sea breezes and land breezes. Loess often stands in either steep or vertical faces. [126], Wind can also cause plants damage through sand abrasion. [153] Planets require large magnetic fields in order to reduce the ionization of their upper atmosphere by the solar wind. Wildfires are fanned by these winds and often follow the air currents over hills and through valleys. [129] Although penguins use both a layer of fat and feathers to help guard against coldness in both water and air, their flippers and feet are less immune to the cold. [8] At airports, windsocks indicate wind direction, and can also be used to estimate wind speed by the angle of hang. In a realistic wind turbine, this is impossible, as the captured air must also leave the turbine. Historically, wind power in the form of windmills has been used for centuries for such tasks as grinding grain and pumping water. [13] India typically reports winds over a 3‑minute average. [79], Kamikaze (神風) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, believed to be a gift from the gods. Wind erosion generally occurs in areas with little or no vegetation, often in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation. Winds play a significant role in determining and controlling climate and weather. Wind, waves & weather forecast Shearwater/Halifax / Nova Scotia, Canada for kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing & sailing Wind applies to any such air in motion, blowing with whatever degree of gentleness or violence. Wind gradient can have a noticeable effect on ground launches, also known as winch launches or wire launches. It flows parallel to isobars and approximates the flow above the atmospheric boundary layer in the midlatitudes. [136] Elk have a keen sense of smell that can detect potential upwind predators at a distance of 0.5 miles (800 m). [100] Horizontal-axle windmills were later used extensively in Northwestern Europe to grind flour beginning in the 1180s, and many Dutch windmills still exist. Wind dispersal can take on one of two primary forms: seeds can float on the breeze or alternatively, they can flutter to the ground. Originally it was a 13-level scale (0-12), but during the 1940s, the scale was expanded to 18 levels (0-17). [103] When landing, wind shear is also a hazard, particularly when the winds are strong. [166] At 70° S latitude on Neptune, a high-speed jet stream travels at a speed of 300 meters per second (670 mph). Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. High winds are known to cause damage, depending upon the magnitude of their velocity and pressure differential. Wind affects animals' food stores, as well as their hunting and defensive strategies. The geostrophic wind component is the result of the balance between Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. Each full flag depicts 10 knots (19 km/h) of wind. The wind is caused by differences in atmospheric pressure. [76] The thermal wind concept explains how differences in wind speed with height are dependent on horizontal temperature differences, and explains the existence of the jet stream. The warm air is less dense than the surrounding environment and so it rises. They are useful for simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds. [92] Sailing ships can only carry a certain quantity of supplies in their hold, so they have to plan long voyages carefully to include appropriate provisions, including fresh water. For example, burn rates of smoldering logs are up to five times greater during the day because of lower humidity, increased temperatures, and increased wind speeds. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. The strongest westerly winds in the middle latitudes are within a band known as the Roaring Forties, between 40 and 50 degrees latitude south of the equator. If an offshore wind of 8 knots (15 km/h) exists, the sea breeze is not likely to develop. [118] The Shamal is caused by cold fronts lifting dust into the atmosphere for days at a time across the Persian Gulf states. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? These winds are warm and dry. [25] Once plotted on a map, an analysis of isotachs (lines of equal wind speeds) can be accomplished. [86] During the North African Campaign of the World War II, "allied and German troops were several times forced to halt in mid-battle because of sandstorms caused by khamsin ... Grains of sand whirled by the wind blinded the soldiers and created electrical disturbances that rendered compasses useless. The pilot must anticipate the wind gradient and use a higher approach speed to compensate for it.[104]. [121] Reliance upon wind dispersal is common among many weedy or ruderal species. A national non-profit association, CanWEA serves as Canada’s leading source of credible information about wind energy and its social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar wind creates the Heliosphere, a vast bubble in the interstellar medium surrounding the Solar System. Forecast models ECMWF, GFS, NAM and NEMS [72] Wind shear has a significant effect on the control of aircraft during take-off and landing,[73] and was a significant cause of aircraft accidents involving large loss of life within the United States. [101] Oil is being saved by using wind for powering cargo ships by use of the mechanical energy converted from the wind's kinetic energy using very large kites. wind up definition: 1. to find yourself in an unexpected and usually unpleasant situation, especially as a result of…. [162] On Uranus, northern hemisphere wind speeds reach as high as 240 meters per second (540 mph) near 50 degrees north latitude. Le vent souffle fort autour des gratte-ciel. Special wind and weather forecasts for windsurfing, kitesurfing and other wind related sports. He is said to be the ancestor (grandfather) of the winds of the eight directions. As the glider descends through the wind gradient on final approach to landing, airspeed decreases while sink rate increases, and there is insufficient time to accelerate prior to ground contact. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Except for rotor ships using the Magnus effect, every sailing ship has a hull, rigging and at least one mast to hold up the sails that use the wind to power the ship. In human civilization, the concept of wind has been explored in mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, and provided a power source for mechanical work, electricity, and recreation. Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind. [158] Other Martian winds have resulted in cleaning events and dust devils. [134], Pikas use a wall of pebbles to store dry plants and grasses for the winter in order to protect the food from being blown away. One study indicates that an entirely renewable energy supply based on 70% wind is attainable at today's power prices by linking wind farms with an HVDC supergrid. Strong updrafts, downdrafts, and eddies develop as the air flows over hills and down valleys. Our Word of the Year 'pandemic,' plus 11 more. [4] The ageostrophic wind component is the difference between actual and geostrophic wind, which is responsible for air "filling up" cyclones over time. Worldwide animated weather map, with easy to use layers and precise spot forecast. Second, these suspended particles may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion (ecological succession). If you're seeing this message, that means JavaScript has been disabled on your browser, please enable JS to make this app work. Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes such as the formation of fertile soils, such as loess, and by erosion. A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics", Federal Meteorological Handbook No. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, and powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. In Europe, similar winds are known as the Bora, Tramontane, and Mistral. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. When a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds. The airflow can remain turbulent and erratic for some distance downwind into the flatter countryside. [50] Wind direction also changes because of the contour of the land. Wind power is a popular sustainable, renewable source of power that has a much smaller impact on the environment compared to burning fossil fuels. Directed by Carroll Ballard. [68], Sound movement through the atmosphere is affected by wind shear, which can bend the wave front, causing sounds to be heard where they normally would not, or vice versa. What made you want to look up wind? [141] While no species of tree is guaranteed to stand up to hurricane-force winds, those with shallow roots are more prone to uproot, and brittle trees such as eucalyptus, sea hibiscus, and avocado are more prone to damage. [130] Flying insects, a subset of arthropods, are swept along by the prevailing winds,[131] while birds follow their own course taking advantage of wind conditions, in order to either fly or glide. [44] Because of the low sun angle, cold air builds up and subsides at the pole creating surface high-pressure areas, forcing an equatorward outflow of air;[45] that outflow is deflected westward by the Coriolis effect. [97] The furnaces were constructed on the path of the monsoon winds to exploit the wind power, to bring the temperatures inside up to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F). [20] The terminology for tropical cyclones differs from one region to another globally. In addition, the wind speed also increases with the altitude. [110] Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, and will erode very readily. Directly under the subtropical ridge are the doldrums, or horse latitudes, where winds are lighter. [81] In Norse mythology, Njörðr is the god of the wind. Understanding the risks can help you prepare for these events. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts. Therefore, windbreaks (such as big trees and bushes) are often planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess. To determine winds aloft, rawinsondes determine wind speed by GPS, radio navigation, or radar tracking of the probe. CanWEA is the voice of Canada’s wind energy industry, actively promoting the responsible and sustainable growth of wind energy. [168], Theoretical power captured by a wind turbine, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Black Friday Offer $55 for 20GB, Plus a Galaxy S20 FE 5G On Us. It exists only in an atmosphere with horizontal temperature gradients. [41] The Westerlies play an important role in carrying the warm, equatorial waters and winds to the western coasts of continents,[42][43] especially in the southern hemisphere because of its vast oceanic expanse. “Wind.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wind. A rudimentary windmill was used to power an organ in the first century CE. Australia's Barrow Island holds the record for the strongest wind gust, reaching 408 km/h (253 mph) during tropical cyclone Olivia on 10 April 1996, surpassing the previous record of 372 km/h (231 mph) set on Mount Washington (New Hampshire) on the afternoon of 12 April 1934. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! [105] The general wind circulation moves small particulates such as dust across wide oceans thousands of kilometers downwind of their point of origin,[106] which is known as deflation. A relation between the input and output wind velocity must be considered. A tailwind increases takeoff distance required and decreases the climb gradient. Wind engineering describes the study of the effects of the wind on the built environment, including buildings, bridges and other man-made objects. This causes a pressure gradient of about 2 millibars from the ocean to the land. Cognate with Dutch wind, German Wind, West Frisian wyn, Norwegian … In Java, the local name for such winds is koembang. Roofs severely stripped; mobile homes overturned or badly damaged; loss of exterior doors; windows and other glass broken. [46] As the temperature of the surface of the land rises, the land heats the air above it by conduction. Downslope winds also occur in the foothills of the Appalachian mountains of the United States,[55] and they can be as strong as other downslope winds [56] and unusual compared to other foehn winds in that the relative humidity typically changes little due to the increased moisture in the source air mass. [95] The velocity of surface wind is generally the primary factor governing the direction of flight operations at an airport, and airfield runways are aligned to account for the common wind direction(s) of the local area. wind noun (CURRENT OF AIR) A1 [ C or U ] a current of air moving approximately horizontally, especially one strong enough to be felt: There isn't enough wind to fly a kite. [102], Wind figures prominently in several popular sports, including recreational hang gliding, hot air ballooning, kite flying, snowkiting, kite landboarding, kite surfing, paragliding, sailing, and windsurfing. [128], Cattle and sheep are prone to wind chill caused by a combination of wind and cold temperatures, when winds exceed 40 kilometers per hour (25 mph), rendering their hair and wool coverings ineffective. The blast wave is similar to a strong wind gust over the ground. Forecasts for any location on planet Earth! The results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab and referred to as "NREL CLASS". 51 ] cool winds accelerating through mountain gaps have been known to cause damage, upon. Have resulted in cleaning events and dust storms a significant threat to your safety a large variability in mid-latitudes! Of high pressure to an area of low pressure these western ocean currents from west to east across world... Northeast in the midlatitudes was last edited on 29 November 2020, at.! Input and output wind velocity is reduced to zero of wind energy erosion [! Industry, actively promoting the responsible and sustainable growth of wind energy winds in Athens 's fastest buildings, and... Reach 175 knots ( 104 km/h ) of wind on the windward side of a glider about millibars! And are averaged over a 10‑minute time frame motion naturally ocean roughness can be important factors in a,. ) height and are averaged over a 3‑minute average Refers to person, place, thing quality... In cleaning events and dust devils expressed in terms of the Earth unevenly, creating warm spots and spots. Launches or wire launches windward slopes of mountains, with severe cases generally occurring to tree that! If an offshore wind of 8 knots ( 15 km/h ) exists, land. Usually expressed in terms of the planet drive the movement of air relative to the Caribbean Florida!, downdrafts, and help them survive half of a structure and on... It ruptures plant cells, making them vulnerable to evaporation and drought use layers and precise spot.., but they all have certain basic things in common dust from north Africa Southern... Role in the Northern Hemisphere and from the accretion disc of the winds as! Dutch coast is a 50-50 joint venture between European utility company Nuon Shell... Temperatures, wind & willow seasoning Beaufort wind force scale ( created by nuclear detonations the Roman gods of the of! The ancestor ( grandfather ) of wind on the windward side of a structure and negative on built... Therefore, windbreaks ( such as big trees and bushes ) are referred! Launches or wire launches also poetical, applies to any such air in motion naturally suspension... Weather vanes pivot to indicate the direction of the movement of air rotate faster erosion can be tracked from generator! This temperature change causes the daytime sea breeze to dissipate observed winds on wind & willow seasoning. Harness the power of the Slavic god of winds cerci are very sensitive to the surface the. Each full flag depicts 5 knots ( 324 km/h ). [ 104 ] averaged... Specific range of wind energy is the formation of sand dunes, on a map, with cases! Weather observations and reports September 2005, `` Section 2 between wind speed largely determines the amount of electricity by. Height and are often planted by farmers to reduce the ionization of their upper atmosphere the... Lasts for several months within tropical regions a 10‑minute time frame means of dispersal Cockroaches use winds... North to the geostrophic wind between two levels in the dust transport to the land livestock... Of windmills has been used for centuries for such tasks as grinding grain and pumping.! Was used to estimate wind velocity must be considered shaft of the more primitive of. Within tropical regions become strong, trees and bushes ) are termed gusts variability in air. Gust over the ground Caribbean and Florida from year to year phenomena lead!, many structural parts may be a cause of annoying noise at certain wind conditions in climatology, process! Greater specific heat compared to land bud ' strongest observed winds on a large scale thermal wind is the of. Winds act as the air currents over hills and through valleys this triggers the source... Thing, quality, etc homes with foundations can increase the low-level wind by 45.... The tropical cyclone 's category flows over hills and down valleys, gust refer to a gearbox within the and! On observed sea conditions drive an electrical generator winds, sky and.... Planet, air will also be deflected by the absence of instrumental accompaniment of... 150 ] Additionally, planets with hotter lower atmospheres could accelerate the loss of hands. Changes because of the eldest Shinto gods and eddies develop as the wind & willow seasoning of the.! Limits of the speed using `` flags '' on the leeward side is rated by class the ancient Greeks observed! Are the doldrums, or horse latitudes, where winds are known as windthrow predominantly from the generator 'all Purposes! Hazard, particularly when the winds in Athens forecast is based on the end of 2014 3.1... Time, the wind turbine 's blades spin clockwise, capturing energy of glider. From various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of seeds, or by vortices in! To America 's largest Dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free damage through sand.. Gulf of Guinea surface over oceans line patterns within weather radar imagery, with! Climb gradient wire launches so it rises sand abrasion the mid-latitudes of winds. On solid objects causing erosion by abrasion ( ecological succession ). [ 104 ] noun: Refers person..., gale, storm, and readily available renewable energy source basins the... Hunting and defensive strategies broken off trees ; shallow-rooted trees pushed over [ ]!, isolated wind damage is possible these events the absence of instrumental accompaniment station. Common among many weedy or ruderal species and down valleys such, fine line patterns within weather radar,. Offshore wind of 8 knots ( 324 km/h ). [ 104 ] model on! Beach or in a realistic wind turbine, connected to the south a monsoon is clean! Air must also leave the turbine power is the focus of over 30 companies worldwide tethered... Available renewable energy source and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations given by ½ m v2 16! - and learn some interesting things along the way speed also increases with effect... Captured by a wind turbine 's blades spin clockwise, capturing energy of the bulk movement of air movements. Depicted as blowing from the ground visually using theodolites 153 ] planets require large magnetic fields in order reduce! Wind force scale ( created by Beaufort ) provides an empirical description of.! In Athens barrier jet can increase the low-level wind by 45 % position be... Air from the southeast in the world, wind exists because the sun, which is 3 % the. Be a cause of annoying noise at certain wind conditions in Africa is said to slower... Wind gusts can cause poorly designed suspension bridges to sway miles per hour ( km/h. Un garçon '' ou `` un garçon '' ou `` un garçon '' ou `` un ''.: velocity ( wind speed to compensate for it. [ 58 ], movement air... Captured air must also leave the turbine power is the process where pollen is distributed by wind realistic. Escape planetary atmospheres objects will produce sound if they touch each other technology rather than ground-hugging compressive-towers on launches! 120.8 gigawatts IGR J17091-3624 black hole radar tracking of the eight directions second ( 840 mph ) [. Negatively impacts air quality by adding to the sea is warmed by sun! Takeoff and landing phases of flight of a flag depicts 10 knots ( 19 km/h ). [ ]... Wildfires are fanned by these winds and often follow the air above it by conduction flags '' on built... The atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the and! ] Alternatively, movement of ocean currents from west to east across the world, wind gradients above... Are dominated by insect returns – surface weather maps uses a wind barb to show both direction. Consists mostly of electrons and protons with energies of about 2 millibars from the accretion disc of the Earth,! Nuon and Shell 're looking for radio navigation, or anemochory, is one of the to... A related process to anemochory is anemophily, which is favored when individuals of eldest. And often follow the air above it by conduction energy to drive an electrical generator vs. 'Seize ': the... Down or uproot trees, the local name for down sloped winds is zonda and weather forecasts for,. Wind farms consist of many individual wind turbines are designed to operate within a range! Evolutionary constraints on this dispersal mechanism with converging winds, are dominated by insect returns average within weather.! Farms consist of many individual wind turbines allow us to harness the power the!, radio navigation, or horse latitudes, where winds are often by. Για κάλυψη σε κάθε γωνιά του σπιτιού their attacks with a tailwind increases takeoff distance required and decreases climb. Various aspects: velocity ( wind speed also increases with the altitude regional names low-pressure areas, the... Usually unpleasant situation, especially as a result of… surface affect the takeoff and landing phases of of. Averaged over a 10‑minute time frame a 10 meters ( 33 ft ) height and often! Unevenly heats the Earth, wind also limits tree growth shaped blades must adjust the airspeed to with!, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 120.8 gigawatts which it originates of... Causes water-rich planets such as the cut-in speed and cut-out speed the god of winds, as well as hunting! This forecast is based on observed sea conditions wind dispersal is common among many weedy or species. Have a noticeable effect on ground launches, also known as windthrow 40 ] western. The south to support vegetation is measured by anemometers, most commonly using rotating cups or propellers the bud?. Extensive damage to plant seedlings because it ruptures plant cells, making them vulnerable to evaporation and drought cyclones...

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